Progress over Perfection

Posts in category GATE

Data Mining: An Introduction

Data Mining: An Introduction

Why Mine Data? Data are rich but information is poor. Lot’s of data so, can’t find useful information. How can I do? …………   use  DATA MINING to UNCOVER HIDDEN INFORMATION The need for data mining can be categorized mainly into 3 parts – 1. Commercial Viewpoint Lots of data is being collected and warehoused like […]

Basic Networking Commands

Basic Networking Commands

Ping (Packet Internet Gopher) Pinging an IP address or website can help you to determine if the network card can communicate within the local network or outside network. Windows command line and MS-DOS users:   At the prompt type the below command containing domain name or IP address of the computer you want to ping. Ping […]

The Pumping Lemma for Regular and Con...

The Pumping Lemma for Regular and Context-free Languages

The Pumping Lemma for Regular Languages Pumping Lemma is a powerful tool to prove that a language is not regular. The proof technique used here is Proof by Contradiction. ie., initially, in the proof, the language is considered as a regular language. The following table shows how and where pumping lemma used exactly: The finite […]

Turing Machine: Acceptor & Trans...

Turing Machine: Acceptor & Transducer

We have studied two types of languages from the Chomsky hierarchy: regular languages and context-free languages. These languages can describe many practically important systems and so they are heavily used in practice. They are, however, of limited capability and there are many languages that they can not process. Here we are going to study the […]

How Email is Sent: SMTP and POP3/IMAp...

How Email is Sent: SMTP and POP3/IMAp4

Email is based around the use of electronic mailboxes. When an email is sent, the message is routed from server to server, all the way to the recipient’s email server. Today almost everyone has at least one email account. Clicking on the email send button and delivery of an email message contains a lot of […]

Managing network Devices: SNMP

Managing network Devices: SNMP

SNMP is the most widely used and popular protocol for managing, monitoring and controlling of network devices like routers, switches over a public or private network. SNMP provides a framework for managing devices using TCP/IP Protocol suit. SNMP uses the concept of manager and agent For a network there may be few managers and set of […]

Ambiguity and Simplification Algorith...

Ambiguity and Simplification Algorithms of CFG

Ambiguity in CFG A CFG G is ambiguous if there is at least one string w in L(G) having 2 or more derivation trees. example: Let CFG G : S → S + S | a The string a + a + a ∈ L(G) has 2 left most derivatives as shown below, so given G is […]

PDA: Push Down Automata Designing

PDA: Push Down Automata Designing

PDA from CFL L = {anbn > 0} Accepted strings = {ab, aabb, aaabbb, …} δ(q0, a, Z) = (q0, aZ)   // q0 is the initial state, a is the current input symbol and Z is the top of the stack then push a in the stack δ(q0, a, a) = (q0, aa)   // q0 is the […]

Automata Theory: An Introduction

Automata Theory: An Introduction

Automata Mathematical representation of formal language (FL) is known as automata. Automata theory is a subject which describes the behavior of automatic machines mathematically. In Computer Science the word automata is used for recognizer or acceptor as well as transducer (machine with output capability). Types of Automata: There are four types of automata: Finite Automata (FA) […]

Chomsky Classification of Grammar

Chomsky Classification of Grammar

Phase Structural Grammar A language L is set of Valid strings over ∑ where ∑ = alphabet or Character set. ∑*  is set of All Possible strings using ∑ in which some strings are valid and others are not valid. Thus, There should be some mechanism to check if a given string is valid or not. The number […]

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